Vijay Rao

TitleProfessor & Chair JMC
InstitutionThomas Jefferson University
DepartmentChair SKMC
Address111 S. 11th Street
Philadelphia PA 19107
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Brady AP, Bello JA, Derchi LE, Fuchsjäger M, Goergen S, Krestin GP, Lee EJY, Levin DC, Pressacco J, Rao VM, Slavotinek J, Visser JJ, Walker REA, Brink JA. Radiology in the Era of Value-based Healthcare: A Multi-Society Expert Statement from the ACR, CAR, ESR, IS3R, RANZCR, and RSNA. Radiology. 2020 Dec 21; 209027. PMID: 33346696.
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    2. Brady AP, Bello JA, Derchi LE, Fuchsjäger M, Goergen S, Krestin GP, Lee EJY, Levin DC, Pressacco J, Rao VM, Slavotinek J, Visser JJ, Walker REA, Brink JA. Radiology in the Era of Value-Based Healthcare: A Multi Society Expert Statement From the ACR, CAR, ESR, IS3R, RANZCR, and RSNA. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Dec 18. PMID: 33358108.
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    3. Gupta N, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. Association between Medicaid expansion status and lung cancer screening exam growth: findings from the ACR lung cancer registry. Clin Imaging. 2020 Dec 03; 73:79-85. PMID: 33321465.
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    4. Kramer MR, Levin DC, Rao VM. Utilization Trends in Abdominal Imaging, 2004-2016. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020 May 26; 1-5. PMID: 32452692.
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    5. Kamel SI, Zoga A, Randolph F, Rao V, Desai V. Impact of the Closure of a Large, Urban Safety-Net Hospital on a Neighboring Academic Center: A Philadelphia Case Study. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 May 07. PMID: 32389550.
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    6. Teberian I, Kaufman T, Shames J, Rao VM, Liao L, Levin DC. Trends in the Use of Percutaneous Versus Open Surgical Breast Biopsy: An Update. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Mar 24. PMID: 32220577.
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    7. Guez D, Hansberry DR, Gonsalves CF, Eschelman DJ, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Recent Trends in Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Medicare Population. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020 Feb 25; 1-5. PMID: 32097027.
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    8. Hong AS, Levin D, Parker L, Rao VM, Ross-Degnan D, Wharam JF. Trends in Diagnostic Imaging Utilization among Medicare and Commercially Insured Adults from 2003 through 2016. Radiology. 2019 Dec 31; 191116. PMID: 31891320.
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    9. Atsina KB, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. JOURNAL CLUB: Advanced Imaging Interpretation by Radiologists and Nonradiologist Physicians: A Training Issue. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Nov 06; 1-7. PMID: 31691611.
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    10. Levin DC, Rao VM. Solutions to Reduce Unnecessary Imaging. JAMA. 2019 06 11; 321(22):2242-2243. PMID: 31184731.
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    11. Levin DC, Rao VM, Hiatt MD, Colarossi M. High-Deductible Health Plans and the Challenges They Pose to Radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Nov 08. PMID: 30420237.
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    12. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. Coronary CT Angiography: Reversal of Earlier Utilization Trends. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Aug 26. PMID: 30158087.
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    13. Boroumand G, Teberian I, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Screening Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Utilization Updates. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018 Mar 23; 1-5. PMID: 29570370.
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    14. Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Percent Share of All Medicare Payments to Physicians That Is Attributable to Noninvasive Diagnostic Imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Feb 22. PMID: 29483052.
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    15. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. Coronary CT Angiography: Use in Patients With Chest Pain Presenting to Emergency Departments. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018 Apr; 210(4):816-820. PMID: 29446681.
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    16. Guez D, Hansberry DR, Eschelman DJ, Gonsalves CF, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement and Retrieval Rates among Radiologists and Nonradiologists. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018 Jan 03. PMID: 29305114.
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    17. Kanesa-Thasan RM, Nazarian LN, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Comparative Trends in Utilization of MRI and Ultrasound to Evaluate Nonspine Joint Disease 2003 to 2015. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Mar; 15(3 Pt A):402-407. PMID: 29246525.
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    18. Levin DC, Rao VM. Reducing Inappropriate Use of Diagnostic Imaging Through the Choosing Wisely Initiative. J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 09; 14(9):1245-1252. PMID: 28457815.
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    19. Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Recent Losses in Medicare Imaging Revenues Experienced by Radiologists, Cardiologists, and Other Physicians. J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 Aug; 14(8):1007-1012. PMID: 28462866.
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    20. Levin DC, Parker L, Palit CD, Rao VM. After Nearly A Decade Of Rapid Growth, Use And Complexity Of Imaging Declined, 2008-14. Health Aff (Millwood). 2017 Apr 01; 36(4):663-670. PMID: 28373332.
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    21. Kamel SI, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. Utilization Trends in Noncardiac Thoracic Imaging, 2002-2014. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec 04. PMID: 27927591.
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    22. Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. Recent Trends in Imaging Use in Hospital Settings: Implications for Future Planning. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Nov 21. PMID: 27884633.
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    23. Sharpe RE, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Effect of the Controversial US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations on the Use of Screening Mammography. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Nov; 13(11S):e58-e61. PMID: 27814825.
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    24. Levin DC, Rao VM, Flanders AE, Sundaram B, Colarossi M. Marketing a Radiology Practice. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Oct; 13(10):1260-1266. PMID: 27317374.
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    25. Levin DC, Rao VM. Factors That Will Determine Future Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Aug; 13(8):904-8. PMID: 27056260.
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    26. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. Recent Trends in Imaging for Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: What Is the Best Approach? J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Apr; 13(4):381-6. PMID: 26774887.
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    27. Intenzo CM, Parker L, Levin DC, Kim SM, Rao VM. Provider Distribution Changes in Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in the Medicare Population Over the Past Decade. J Clin Densitom. 2016 Jul-Sep; 19(3):266-9. PMID: 26670626.
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    28. Levin DC, Eschelman D, Parker L, Rao VM. Trends in Use of Percutaneous Versus Open Surgical Drainage of Abdominal Abscesses. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Dec; 12(12 Pt A):1247-50. PMID: 26653832.
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    29. Cox M, Levin DC, Parker L, Morrison W, Long S, Rao VM. Vertebral Augmentation After Recent Randomized Controlled Trials: A New Rise in Kyphoplasty Volumes. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Jan; 13(1):28-32. PMID: 26546300.
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    30. Levin DC, Gardiner GA, Parker L, Rao VM. Vascular Ultrasound and Noninvasive Physiological Testing for Peripheral Arterial Disease: Are These Tests Being Overused? J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Mar; 13(3):249-54. PMID: 26603096.
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    31. Cox M, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. Relative Roles of Radiologists and Other Physicians in Percutaneous Endovascular Neurointerventions. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Oct; 12(10):1030-5. PMID: 26163052.
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    32. Patel MC, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. Have CT and MR Angiography Replaced Catheter Angiography in Diagnosing Peripheral Arterial Disease? J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Sep; 12(9):909-14. PMID: 26160043.
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    33. Patel BP, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Shift in Outpatient Advanced Imaging From Private Offices to Hospital Facilities. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Oct; 12(10):1042-7. PMID: 26141227.
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    34. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L. Trends in outpatient MRI seem to reflect recent reimbursement cuts. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 May; 12(5):463-6. PMID: 25448060.
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    35. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ. Continued growth in emergency department imaging is bucking the overall trends. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Nov; 11(11):1044-7. PMID: 25439619.
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    36. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L. Financial Impact of Medicare Code Bundling of CT of the Abdomen and Pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 May; 202(5):1069-71. PMID: 24758662.
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    37. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. Are Combined CT Scans of the Thorax Being Overused? J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Aug; 11(8):788-90. PMID: 24768077.
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    38. Rao VM, Levin DC. The choosing wisely initiative of the american board of internal medicine foundation: what will its impact be on radiology practice? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Feb; 202(2):358-61. PMID: 24450677.
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    39. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Rao VM. The diversion of outpatient echocardiography from private offices to higher cost hospital facilities: an unanticipated effect of code bundling. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 May; 11(5):477-80. PMID: 24321220.
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    40. Sharpe RE, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The increasing role of radiologists in thoracic diagnosis: more thoracic biopsies are performed percutaneously. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Oct; 10(10):770-3. PMID: 24091047.
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    41. Sharpe RE, Nazarian LN, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The increasing role of nonradiologists in performing ultrasound-guided invasive procedures. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Nov; 10(11):859-63. PMID: 24075858.
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    42. Surrey D, Sharpe RE, Gorniak RJ, Nazarian LN, Rao VM, Flanders AE. QRSE: a Novel Metric for the Evaluation of Trainee Radiologist Reporting Skills. J Digit Imaging. 2013 Aug; 26(4):678-82. PMID: 23381098.
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    43. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ. Analysis of radiologists' imaging workload trends by place of service. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Oct; 10(10):760-3. PMID: 23632133.
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    44. Sharpe RE, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Recent Reversal of the Growth Trend in MRI: A Harbinger of the Future? J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Aug; 10(8):599-602. PMID: 23542023.
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    45. Levin DC, Rao VM, Berlin J. Ensuring the future of radiology: how to respond to the threats. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Sep; 10(9):647-51. PMID: 23491151.
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    46. Levin DC, Parker L, Intenzo CM, Rao VM. Recent reimbursement changes and their effect on hospital and private office use of myocardial perfusion imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Mar; 10(3):198-201. PMID: 23571060.
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    47. Sharpe RE, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. The Effect of the Controversial US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations on the Use of Screening Mammography. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Jan; 10(1):21-4. PMID: 23290669.
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    48. Levin DC, Rao VM. The declining radiology job market: how should radiologists respond? J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Apr; 10(4):231-3. PMID: 23265974.
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    49. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L. The Recent Downturn in Utilization of CT: The Start of a New Trend? J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Nov; 9(11):795-8. PMID: 23122346.
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    50. Rao VM, Levin DC. The overuse of diagnostic imaging and the Choosing Wisely initiative. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Oct 16; 157(8):574-6. PMID: 22928172.
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    51. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ. The sharp reductions in medicare payments for noninvasive diagnostic imaging in recent years: will they satisfy the federal policymakers? J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Sep; 9(9):643-7. PMID: 22954546.
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    52. Sharpe RE, Surrey D, Gorniak RJ, Nazarian L, Rao VM, Flanders AE. Radiology Report Comparator: a novel method to augment resident education. J Digit Imaging. 2012 Jun; 25(3):330-6. PMID: 21956519.
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    53. Levin DC, Parker L, Schwartz GF, Rao VM. Percutaneous needle vs surgical breast biopsy: previous allegations of overuse of surgery are in error. J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Feb; 9(2):137-40. PMID: 22305700.
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    54. Sharpe RE, Nazarian LN, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Dramatically increased musculoskeletal ultrasound utilization from 2000 to 2009, especially by podiatrists in private offices. J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Feb; 9(2):141-6. PMID: 22305701.
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    55. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L. Trends in the utilization of outpatient advanced imaging after the deficit reduction act. J Am Coll Radiol. 2012 Jan; 9(1):27-32. PMID: 22221633.
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    56. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ. Noncardiac point-of-care ultrasound by nonradiologist physicians: how widespread is it? J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Nov; 8(11):772-5. PMID: 22051460.
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    57. Rao VM, Levin DC, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Trends in utilization rates of the various imaging modalities in emergency departments: nationwide Medicare data from 2000 to 2008. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Oct; 8(10):706-9. PMID: 21962785.
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    58. Rao VM, Levin DC. The value-added services of hospital-based radiology groups. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Sep; 8(9):626-30. PMID: 21889748.
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    59. Rao VM. Putting the light (not the heat) back into radiology morbidity and mortality conferences. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Sep; 8(9):642-3. PMID: 21889752.
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    60. Babiarz LS, Yousem DM, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Volume of neuroradiology studies read by neurologists: implications for fellowship training. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Jul; 8(7):477-82. PMID: 21723484.
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    61. Duszak R, Parker L, Levin DC, Rao VM. Placement and removal of inferior vena cava filters: national trends in the medicare population. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Jul; 8(7):483-9. PMID: 21723485.
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    62. Levin DC, Rao VM. The effect of self-referral on utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Apr; 196(4):848-52. PMID: 21427334.
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    63. Levin DC, Parker L, Halpern EJ, Julsrud PR, Rao VM. The lack of growth in use of coronary CT angiography: is it being appropriately used? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Apr; 196(4):862-7. PMID: 21427337.
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    64. Levin DC, Rao VM. Outsourcing to teleradiology companies: bad for radiology, bad for radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Feb; 8(2):104-8. PMID: 21292185.
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    65. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Bending the curve: the recent marked slowdown in growth of noninvasive diagnostic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jan; 196(1):W25-9. PMID: 21178027.
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    66. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Medicare payments for noninvasive diagnostic imaging are now higher to nonradiologist physicians than to radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2011 Jan; 8(1):26-32. PMID: 21211761.
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    67. Duszak R, Parker L, Levin DC, Rao VM. Evolving roles of radiologists, nephrologists, and surgeons in endovascular hemodialysis access maintenance procedures. J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Dec; 7(12):937-42. PMID: 21129684.
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    68. Friedman DP, Levin DC, Rao VM. Trends in the utilization of CT angiography and MR angiography of the head and neck in the Medicare population. J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Nov; 7(11):854-8. PMID: 21040866.
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    69. Rao VM, Levin DC, Parker L, Cavanaugh B, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. How widely is computer-aided detection used in screening and diagnostic mammography? J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Oct; 7(10):802-5. PMID: 20889111.
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    70. Parker L, Levin DC, Frangos A, Rao VM. Geographic variation in the utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging: national medicare data, 1998-2007. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Apr; 194(4):1034-9. PMID: 20308507.
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    71. Agarwal R, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM. Trends in PET scanner ownership and leasing by nonradiologist physicians. J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Mar; 7(3):187-91. PMID: 20193923.
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    72. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L. Physician orders contribute to high-tech imaging slowdown. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Jan-Feb; 29(1):189-95. PMID: 20048376.
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    73. Levin DC, Bree RL, Rao VM, Johnson J. A prior authorization program of a radiology benefits management company and how it has affected utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Jan; 7(1):33-8. PMID: 20129269.
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    74. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ. The disproportionate effects of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 on radiologists' private office MRI and CT practices compared with those of other physicians. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Sep; 6(9):620-5. PMID: 19720356.
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    75. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Endovascular repair vs open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: comparative utilization trends from 2001 to 2006. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jul; 6(7):506-9. PMID: 19560067.
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    76. Levin DC, Rao VM, Kaye AD. Why the in-office ancillary services exception to the Stark laws needs to be changed--and why most physicians (not just radiologists) should support that change. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jun; 6(6):390-2. PMID: 19467481.
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    77. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Intenzo CM. Recent payment and utilization trends in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison between self-referral and referral to radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jun; 6(6):437-41. PMID: 19467490.
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    78. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Recent shifts in place of service for noninvasive diagnostic imaging: have hospitals missed an opportunity? J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Feb; 6(2):96-9. PMID: 19179236.
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    79. Friedman DP, Smith NS, Bree RL, Rao VM. Experience of an academic neuroradiology division participating in a utilization management program. J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Feb; 6(2):119-24. PMID: 19179241.
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    80. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Ownership or leasing of CT scanners by nonradiologist physicians: a rapidly growing trend that raises concern about self-referral. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Dec; 5(12):1206-9. PMID: 19027685.
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    81. Levin DC, Rao VM, Kaye A. Turf wars in radiology: recent actions against self-referral by state governments, commercial payers, and medicare--hope is on the horizon. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Sep; 5(9):972-7. PMID: 18755437.
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    82. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: updated evidence on the relationship between self-referral and the overutilization of imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Jul; 5(7):806-10. PMID: 18585657.
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    83. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Recent trends in utilization rates of abdominal imaging: the relative roles of radiologists and nonradiologist physicians. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Jun; 5(6):744-7. PMID: 18514954.
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    84. Levin DC, Rao VM. Same-specialty referrals for imaging compared with referrals to radiologists: are the data correct? Radiology. 2008 May; 247(2):592; discussion 592-4. PMID: 18430887.
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    85. Levin DC, Rao VM. Radiology's image problem: ponder the words of some thought leaders in the field. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 May; 5(5):616-8. PMID: 18442763.
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    86. Rao VM, Levin DC, Parker L, Frangos AJ. Recent trends in mammography utilization in the Medicare population: is there a cause for concern? J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 May; 5(5):652-6. PMID: 18442771.
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    87. Parker L, Nazarian LN, Carrino JA, Morrison WB, Grimaldi G, Frangos AJ, Levin DC, Rao VM. Musculoskeletal imaging: medicare use, costs, and potential for cost substitution. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Mar; 5(3):182-8. PMID: 18312965.
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    88. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Ownership or leasing of MRI facilities by nonradiologist physicians is a rapidly growing trend. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008 Feb; 5(2):105-9. PMID: 18242525.
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    89. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Recent trends in utilization rates of noncardiac thoracic imaging: an example of how imaging growth might be controlled. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Dec; 4(12):886-9. PMID: 18047983.
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    90. Rao VM, Levin DC. Turf wars in radiology: what must academic radiology do? J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Sep; 4(9):622-5. PMID: 17845968.
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    91. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. The effect of the introduction of MR and CT angiography on the utilization of catheter angiography for peripheral arterial disease. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Jul; 4(7):457-60. PMID: 17601587.
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    92. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: challenges leveled at our specialty and how to respond to them. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Jul; 4(7):492-3. PMID: 17601592.
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    93. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: the future of radiology depends on research--and on your support of it! J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Mar; 4(3):184-6. PMID: 17412260.
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    94. Levin DC, Rao VM, Frangos AJ, Parker L, Sunshine JH. Recent trends in utilization of vascular ultrasound among radiologists, surgeons, cardiologists, and other physicians. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007 Feb; 4(2):125-7. PMID: 17412244.
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    95. Levin DC, Rao VM, Frangos AJ, Parker L, Sunshine JH. Current practice patterns and recent trends in breast biopsy among radiologists and surgeons. J Am Coll Radiol. 2006 Sep; 3(9):707-9. PMID: 17412153.
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    96. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: privileging and site accreditation programs--what they have accomplished for commercial health plans. J Am Coll Radiol. 2006 Jul; 3(7):534-6. PMID: 17412118.
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    97. Levin DC, Rao VM, Frangos AJ, Parker L, Sunshine JH. The controversy over advanced cardiovascular imaging: relative roles of radiologists, cardiologists, and other physicians in CT and MRI of the cardiovascular system. J Am Coll Radiol. 2006 Jan; 3(1):16-8. PMID: 17412000.
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    98. Artz GJ, Rao VM, O'Reilly RC. Vertically oriented internal auditory canal in an 8-year-old with hearing loss. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Jun; 70(6):1129-32. PMID: 16378647.
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    99. Rao VM, Levin DC. Turf wars in radiology: training in diagnostic imaging: how much is enough? J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Dec; 2(12):1016-8. PMID: 17411985.
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    100. Levin DC, Intenzo CM, Rao VM, Frangos AJ, Parker L, Sunshine JH. Comparison of recent utilization trends in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging among radiologists and cardiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Oct; 2(10):821-4. PMID: 17411941.
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    101. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Frangos AJ, Sunshine JH. Recent trends in utilization of cardiovascular imaging: how important are they for radiology? J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Sep; 2(9):736-9. PMID: 17411920.
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    102. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: should it be radiologists or cardiologists who do cardiac imaging? J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Sep; 2(9):749-52. PMID: 17411922.
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    103. Intenzo CM, Parker L, Rao VM, Levin DC. Changes in procedure volume and service provider distribution among radiologists and nonradiologists in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry between 1996 and 2002. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Aug; 2(8):662-4. PMID: 17411901.
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    104. Rao VM, Levin DC. Turf wars in radiology: the past, present, and future importance of training standards in imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Jul; 2(7):602-6. PMID: 17411885.
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    105. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: emergency department ultrasound and radiography. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Mar; 2(3):271-3. PMID: 17411810.
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    106. Maitino AJ, Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Sunshine JH. Do emergency medicine physicians perform ultrasound and conventional radiography in the emergency department? Recent trends from 1993 to 2001. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Mar; 2(3):274-8. PMID: 17411811.
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    107. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Bonn J, Maitino AJ, Sunshine JH. The changing roles of radiologists, cardiologists, and vascular surgeons in percutaneous peripheral arterial interventions during a recent five-year interval. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Jan; 2(1):39-42. PMID: 17411758.
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    108. Levin DC, Rao VM, Bonn J. Turf wars in radiology: the battle for peripheral vascular interventions. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005 Jan; 2(1):68-71. PMID: 17411763.
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    109. Levin DC, Rao VM, Parker L, Maitino AJ, Sunshine JH. Who gets paid for diagnostic imaging, and how much? J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Dec; 1(12):931-5. PMID: 17411735.
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    110. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: possible remedies for self-referral that could be taken by federal or state governments and payers. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Nov; 1(11):806-10. PMID: 17411710.
      Citations:    
    111. Rao VM, Bacelar MT. MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2004 Nov; 14(4):761-75. PMID: 15489151.
      Citations:    
    112. Levin DC, Rao VM, Orrison WW. Turf wars in radiology: the quality of imaging facilities operated by nonradiologist physicians and of the images they produce. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Sep; 1(9):649-51. PMID: 17411674.
      Citations:    
    113. Levin DC, Rao VM, Maitino AJ, Parker L, Sunshine JH. Comparative increases in utilization rates of ultrasound examinations among radiologists, cardiologists, and other physicians from 1993 to 2001. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Aug; 1(8):549-52. PMID: 17411652.
      Citations:    
    114. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: the quality of interpretations of imaging studies by nonradiologist physicians--a patient safety issue? J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Jul; 1(7):506-9. PMID: 17411640.
      Citations:    
    115. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: other causes of overutilization and what can be done about it. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 May; 1(5):317-21. PMID: 17411595.
      Citations:    
    116. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: the overutilization of imaging resulting from self-referral. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Mar; 1(3):169-72. PMID: 17411553.
      Citations:    
    117. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: introduction. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004 Jan; 1(1):23-5. PMID: 17411515.
      Citations:    
    118. Maitino AJ, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM, Sunshine JH. Practice patterns of radiologists and nonradiologists in utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging among the Medicare population 1993-1999. Radiology. 2003 Sep; 228(3):795-801. PMID: 12954898.
      Citations:    
    119. Maitino AJ, Levin DC, Parker L, Rao VM, Sunshine JH. Nationwide trends in rates of utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging among the Medicare population between 1993 and 1999. Radiology. 2003 Apr; 227(1):113-7. PMID: 12668743.
      Citations:    
    120. Gold L, Nazarian LN, Johar AS, Rao VM. Characterization of maxillofacial soft tissue vascular anomalies by ultrasound and color Doppler imaging: an adjuvant to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003 Jan; 61(1):19-31. PMID: 12524603.
      Citations:    
    121. Levine JM, Cornetta AJ, Rao VM, Keane WM. Radiology: radiology quiz case 2. Atypical lipomatous tumor, a variant of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Jan; 129(1):130, 132-3. PMID: 12525210.
      Citations:    
    122. Rao VM, Bacelar MT. MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2002 Nov; 10(4):615-30. PMID: 12685497.
      Citations:    
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